The correct composition will transform your photography. This is something I still continue to develop with my own imagery. I have put together this easy to understand outline of composition in photography.
Composition includes one or all of these concepts and it is good to practice all of these and compare the results. There are are many sub categories to composition but this will give you a basic rundown.
THE RULE OF THIRDS
This involves dividing up your image using two horizontal lines and two vertical lines, as shown in the image below. Positioning the important elements of your scene along those lines. Generally an off-centre composition is more aesthetically appealing and looks more natural than placing the subject directly in the middle.
THE GOLDEN RATIO
This is a more advanced method of the rule of thirds you will often see this used in architecture and art. This method allows for a perfectly balanced composition that is proven to be aesthetically appealing. This ratio is seen in nature all the time because of this we naturally prefer to look at a photograph that is balance and harmonised. You can over lay this in Lightroom when you are editing an image.
Another important compositional technique in photography that concerns the position of objects within a scene. Additionally, balance also relates to symmetry, colour, texture, depth of field, negative space, visual weight, highlights and shadows.
FRAMING OF A SUBJECT
Is a composition technique that assists in drawing attention to the subject of your image by blocking other parts of the image with something in the scene. It can be used in a really creative way to draw your eye in and gives your image context and creates a story for your image. You can use natural elements like trees or plants, doorways, windows or light and shadows.
The most common example of this method is to use a road. The leading lines composition technique relates to your images attention being drawn into lines that lead to the main subject matter. A leading line creates an easy path for the eye to follow toward different elements of the photo. Generally they start at the bottom of the image guiding your eye to your subject.
this is a fundamental factor to creating an amazing image .Whether you use natural light or artificially manipulate a scene. Lighting determines so much more than brightness it incorporates the tone, mood and atmosphere that the image portrays.
By distributing the correct amount of shadow and highlights in a beautifully balanced fashion it takes your viewer on a journey and provides a story to your work.